Buddha's first teaching, "Setting the wheel of Dhamma in motion", to five ascetics at the Deer Park (Sarnath) near Benares city, India, where Kondanna, the senior ascetic, attained the first level of enlightenment.
The teaching contains the following:
- People should live the middle way which is between two extremes, namely hedonism (loose practice) and asceticism (tough practice). The Buddha defined the middle way as the Noble Eightfold Path, which consist of the following:
- Right understanding: understand as it really is.
- Right view: have a good view and intention to do good actions.
- Right speech: say words which cause love, harmony, and wisdom.
- Right actions: good actions which neither harm oneself nor others.
- Right livelihood: make a living which is not harmful to one self, or others.
- Right effort: make an effort to abandon bad actions and perform good actions.
- Right mindfulness: be mindful and careful of mental and physical actions.
- Right concentration: focus attention on work being done in the here and now.
2. The Four Noble Truths which are as follows:
- Suffering, both mentally and physically, exists in this world and all beings experience it in their daily life.
- Any suffering has a cause. Find the cause and you will find the solution.
- The best solution is wisdom gained by education and practice.
- The path will lead to the end of suffering.