the ninth day of the month of Av. The day primarily commemorates the destruction of the first and second Temples. The first temple was destroyed on the ninth of Av in 586 by the Babylonians in 586 B.C.E. (before the Christian Era). The second temple was destroyed by the Romans in 70 C.E. (Christian Era). Other tragedies which occurred on this day are
- The expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492 and from England in 1290.
- The Alhambra Decree, issued March 31, 1492, which ordered all Jews to leave Spain by the end of July 1492.